Just Have a Think explains why artificial chloroplasts may be the future of energy production.

Nature already knows how to convert energy from carbon dioxide and sunlight. After all it’s been doing it for millions of years in the form of photosynthesis, the fundamental building block for all life on earth. But although the process is extremely efficient, it’s not very fast. Now scientists have discovered how to mimic nature’s magic in a laboratory, and speed it up so much that it could become an industrial scale replacement for petrochemicals, allowing us to keep more and more crude oil in the ground where it belongs.